60 Degree Review

A 360-degree review is a communicative forum that enables the staff and the management to provide feedback on the performance of colleagues on a professional basis. This tool is quite strategic as it gathers useful insights that could be applied in executive decision making and also aid in improving individual growth for the benefit of the organisation.

Average Sale Value

Average sale price is the generalised numerical worth of a particular type of product or service within the market. This value is determined by factors such as the type of product, its classification, life cycle, and distribution channels. Businesses looking to release a new product use the average sale value as a basis of determining their selling price.

Board Members

The board members entail a group of individuals with the power to influence company decisions based on their shareholder’s interests. Board members are selected by the organisation’s shareholders to perform the function of ensuring their shareholder’s interests are met by the company’s executives. These interests may include corporate activities such as evaluation of management performance, declaring dividends, facilitating organisational acquisitions and selling, determining executive compensation packages, and so on.


Breakeven is a point in the production process whereby the production cost is equal to the income gained from the product. Therefore at this point, the market price of the product in question is similar to its original cost. The breakeven point is quite significant in influencing investment decisions.


A budget entails a detailed approximation of the revenue and expenditure within a particular organisation over an anticipated time in the future. Budgets facilitate responsible spending and allow for saving of monetary resources.

Business Coaching

Business coaching is a structured process that entails conversation and training to help clients achieve their business goals. This is done by altering their behaviour and attitudes to suit their respective market and meet their commercial objectives. Business coaching is a significant process in enabling a business person to understand their role in enabling business success.

Business Consulting

Business consulting is a simple but significant process of business advice rendered from an expert’s perspective to an individual or group of people in the business. Expert advice is crucial for commercial growth for an already established as well as a starting up business considering that industry transformation and rise in the competition are constant factors in business.

Business Restructure

A business restructure is a strategic procedure carried out by companies that aim to significantly alter their operating structures such as financial operations, and general company functions. This tactical measure is usually taken at opportune moments when an organisation is either anticipating bad times ahead such as financial constraints or a buyout or good times such as a merger, or repossession.

Business Valuation

A business valuation entails the systematic process applied to examine the economic value of a particular organisation. This concept is utilised by executives and business owners to determine a company’s fair value to influence corporate standpoints such as sale value, partner ownership agreements, and taxation among others.


CAPEX which stands for capital expenditure entails the expenses used to facilitate and maintain a company’s investment projects. CAPEX financially covers aspects such as company upgrades, technology advancements, physical assets such as properties and buildings, and research advancement among other developmental concepts. If properly utilised CAPEX can help a business gain exponential growth and a great competitive advantage.

Cash flow

The cash flow of business pertains to the total amount of cash or resources equivalent to cash that moves into and out of the business within the general functioning of the company. A growing business aims to enable positive cash flow.

Cashflow forecast

A cash flow forecast implies an anticipated amount of cash or the equivalent of it to be received or given out of a particular business within a given period. It entails the anticipated income and expenditure of a business that is strategically applied to ensure the proper management of a business’s finances. That, therefore, guarantees that the company constantly has funding to facilitate its operation.

CEO Coaching

CEO coaching is a learning process that involves the forming of a professional relationship between a coach and a client. The client who is in the CEO position of a company is inspired to improve their performance by developing personal and professional proficiencies that make them better CEOs. The coach can monitor and assess their client’s learning and application of the acquired skills through CEO coaching procedure.


Communication is a simple process of imparting information between two or more entities. Within an organisation, communication is a basic tool. That is because it enables the sharing of progressive information, ideas, and instructions that are used in facilitating the basic running of the organisation and general practice of the workforce in the most efficient and error evasive way.

Conflict Management

Conflict management is a leadership quality that enables an individual to recognise conflict and take the necessary measures rationally, and impartially. The aim is to deal with the situation to come up with a relevant solution. Conflict is a commonly experienced phenomenon in any work environment, however, with properly executed conflict management protocols, conflict cannot hinder productivity.


Culture is a fundamental aspect of any corporate setting. That is given that it entails the beliefs and behaviours that influence how the workforce and the leaders of a particular organisation interact with each other and conduct their business. This is a factor that is developed over time and has a significant impact in forming the foundation of a business as well as its rate of success.

Customer Lifetime Value

Customer lifetime value is a metric system that accounts for the value a customer brings to a particular business during the entire period as a client to the business. Understanding a company’s customer lifetime value enables the company’s management to make strategic decisions in areas such as product marketing, sales, product development, and even clientele reinforcement.


Diversity entails a workforce that accommodates individuals from different demographics including, gender, race, age, education, social status, religion, sexual orientation, and ethnicity just to name a few. An organisation that utilises a diversified workforce enjoys various benefits. That includes increased innovativeness, a wider talent group, improved productivity, unique perspectives, and the overall growth of the organisation.


Efficiency is about the utilisation of the available resources in the best possible means to facilitate maximum outputs and minimised inputs. A business's efficiency is determined by its ability to earn revenue using the least possible cost which is the source of competitive advantage sought after by most organisations.

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence entails an individual’s capacity to comprehend and control their own emotions as well as those of the individuals around them. High emotional intelligence involves the ability to interpret one’s feelings and the impact of these feelings to those around them. This is an important personal skill especially for a leader within an organisational setting to ensure proper professional interaction and general productivity.

Executive Coaching

Executive coaching is a procedure designed to improve an individual’s role within an executive position. With the aid of an executive coach, a manager or Senior Vice President is trained to develop professionally and personally, to gain proper skills. This includes communication skills, assertiveness, conflict resolution, which are essential for the achievement of corporate ambitions.


For an organisation to carry out its basic functions in a bid to gain revenue and grow in business it needs to incur costs, this is what is referred to as the expenses. An expense would range from paying of suppliers, employee salaries, distribution channels, equipment used just to mention a few.


For an organisation to conduct its basic function and ultimately achieve the goals it needs to be financed. That is the funding that facilitates the organisation's basic activities such as procurement, investing, distribution, and so on. This funding is provided by financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies as well as the company’s resources and profits.

Financial Ratio

A financial ratio involves a comparative spectrum based on the statistical data acquired from the financial statements of a given company. Company executives, investors, and major stakeholders of the company utilise the financial ratio to evaluate the general financial standing of the company. This helps to influence major corporate decisions that may affect the company’s growth and overall success.


Intrapreneurship is an empowerment scheme that gives employees the ability to take entrepreneurial action within the business organisation. It is quite effective in enabling a proactive workforce that is self-motivated and creative in a bid to achieve the organisation’s goals.


Kaizen is a business philosophy that originates from Japan, traditionally meaning “change for the better” in a progressive manner. At Kaizen Consulting Group, we apply this philosophy in helping our clients grow their businesses through personalised coaching.

Key Performance Indicators

A key performance indicator entails a quantifiable figure that expresses a business’s effectiveness in achieving its intended objectives. Organisations use this measuring tool to determine how various levels of the business are faring in terms of the overall success of the business.

Leadership Coaching

Leadership coaching is a systemic relationship created between a coach and an individual in a leadership position. It is designed to aid the client to develop personal and professional skills that would make them effective leaders. This process helps leaders understand their responsibilities in achieving business goals as well as the right ways on how to go about these responsibilities.

Lead Generation

A lead is a potential client who has expressed a specific interest in the product or service offered by a particular business, which is expressed through granting the business their contact information. Lead generation is therefore the strategic implementation of a business’s resources to attract and maintain these leads. Leads are quite important since they hold the potential of creating a profitable client business relationship that enables growth and stability in terms of sales.

Marketing Plan

Every organisation needs a strategic advertising plot that will enable them to access a target market and promote their product or service, which is referred to as the marketing plan. Marketing plan is a document that strategically details aspects such as the target market, the proposed value of the product being promoted. It also entails the structure of the campaign and a practical metric system that will be used to assess the progress of the campaign.


Mission is a powerful statement that outlines the basic principles of an organisation such as its reason for being, its target clientele, and how the organisation aims to serve this clientele. Understanding the purpose of the organisation is crucial for the staff and management of the organisation since it guides their day to day activities towards the organisation’s development.


Within the broad industry of any business endeavor, there is a targetable faction for specialised products with low or no competition, this faction is referred to as niche. Identifying and exploiting a niche within an extensive business industry has a great commercial advantage since it fosters substantial profits and customer loyalty.


The OPEX which is an acronym for operating expenses is the general expenditure incurred by an operating business in facilitating its general functions. This includes rent, payment for equipment used, insurance cost, marketing expenses, inventory fees, and so on. A successful business operates on a relatively low OPEX while still maintaining a competitive advantage.

Outbound Marketing

Outbound marketing is a strategic marketing tool that entails various techniques applied to target a given market. These techniques include but are not limited to media advertising, cold emailing, digital advertising, cold calling, trade shows, and content syndication. Outbound marketing aims to reach a target spectrum of potential clientele and convince them why they need the product on sale to promote sales.

Operation Management

Operation management entails the general implementation of the most efficient business practices to enable maximum productivity within an organisation. The main goal here is to minimise cost and maximise revenue in the conversion of physical labor and intellectual labor to sellable goods and services.

Operational KPI

An operational KPI which stands for key performance indicator involves a measurable value of a business’s performance within a specified time frame. Operational KPI aids organisations to track departmental processes such as sales and marketing. Use this information to determine their progress based on the organisation’s objectives and establish a working strategy to improve its operation and gain a competitive edge.

Operational Excellence

Operational excellence forms the basis of an organisation’s ultimate goal. That is the ability of the organisation to execute business strategies, at the lowest operational risks, lowered operational costs, and highest revenue earnings when compared to the competition. This is achieved through continuous improvement of the organisation and its operational functions which would entail the application of methodologies such as Kaizen.

Performance Appraisal

A performance appraisal is a standard occasional procedure, whereby an employee’s execution of their duties in tandem with the organisation’s mission, vision, and values as well as objectives is examined. It is a structured feedback process that informs the company’s executives of an employee’s achievements, skill application, and growth over a given period of service.

Performance Management

Performance management is a continuous strategic process that aims to improve the organisation as well as individual function through goal setting, strategic planning, and regular evaluation of progress. This is done through the stipulation of the workforce’s and the organisation’s goals or objectives within a given period. Then there is selecting a strategic plan to go about the execution of these goals and assessing their achievement after the designated time frame.


Planning is about a predetermined schedule on how to execute certain organisational functions in a bid to achieve the organisation’s objectives. This includes the, when, how, and who aspects of the execution of these functions. This is a key managerial instrument as it determines the course of action that guides the workforce and thus should be well structured and intellectually developed.

Pricing strategy

The pricing strategy is a tactical procedure that a company applies to price the products or services rendered. The pricing strategy uses a systematic structure. That involves accounting for production aspects such as labor, advertising, and other expenses, to ensure that profit is gained upon the sale of their product.

Process Management

Process management entails the systematic procedure in which a company evaluates fundamental departmental processes and manages them from an individual as well as collective approach. The goal of this procedure is to enable the identification and implementation of necessary modification areas within the departmental processes to make the organisation generally more efficient.

Profit and Loss

Profit and loss are two interconnected terms that express a fiscal summary of an organisation’s ability to generate income through revenue expansion and cost reduction. It involves the company’s operational costs and expenses alongside the earned revenue within a specified period. The goal for any successful business is to have a higher profit than loss through higher revenue earned compared to the cost incurred.

Quarterly Planning

Quarterly planning breaks down the long term strategy of an organisation to the quarter of every annual period of business operation. It schedules the organisation’s operations beforehand to assist in the achievement of short term goals. That ultimately culminates in the long term goals of the organisation’s growth and success.

Repeat Transactions

Customers from time to time tend to replenish the products that they had bought initially or retake the services previously rendered and this is what a repeat transaction is all about. This concept is a classic example of brand loyalty as it indicates that a client is satisfied with the service or product offered and would, therefore, want to obtain them again.

Sales Process

The step by step procedure taken by a salesperson in attracting, convincing, and ultimately closing a sale on a prospective buyer is a sales process. This procedure should be structured and is usually repeatable since it is based on market research and has thus been proven to have an efficiency rate that is at least above sixty percent.

Sales Training

A sales training procedure involves a methodological impartation of specific skills that would enhance an individual’s knowledge, experience, and ability to make them efficient sales personnel. This training is fundamental in enabling a productive sales workforce and can be referred to as a worthy investment since sales are key to an organisation's productivity and growth.


To accelerate particular growth within a company there needs to be a pre-set foundation that supports this growth without any external or internal hindrances. This foundation is facilitated by a strategic plan, proper financing of the project, setting up the most appropriate systems, proper timing, applying relevant technology, and seeking out convenient partnerships. This is what a scale is all about.


A stakeholder is an entity that is either an individual or group that has a vested interest in an organisation. They can therefore influence or be affected by the company’s activities and outcomes. That includes fundamental entities such as the employee, and clientele to major entities such as the suppliers, investors, shareholders, company executives, and even the government.

Succession Planning

Succession planning is a tactical replacement process that involves the passing on of leadership or ownership of a company. This process aims to ensure that the company continues with its growth and the attainment of its objectives even after the preceding leader is gone. To achieve this the individual to succeed the retiring leader is strategically selected and systematically trained to take over.


SWAT is an analytic tool applied by business personnel to gain perspective on the aspects of a business’s strengths, weaknesses, market opportunities, and possible threats. The application of this means of analysis enables entrepreneurs and businesses to develop robust business strategies. That would be based on an informed examination of the market and the business’s potential.

Team Management

For a team to function effectively there needs to be coherence and understanding, thus enabling productivity and organisational growth. Team management formulates a set of activities that enable the growth of the team through proper role allocation, prioritisation, and convenient collaboration.


Teamwork is primarily the understanding and acceptance of a group of individuals to work collaboratively to achieve a common goal. The success of this concept is majorly determined by the value of leadership in terms of aspects such as role allocation and proper skill matching as well as the willingness of the group to work together.


USP is the acronym for unique selling proposition which stands for the standout factor of a business. This is the quality that answers the question, “what makes this business better than the competition?” It forms the core of the business and helps to influence key decision making, branding, marketing strategy as well as customer and investor attraction.


Values form the central force of a business as they entail the principles and beliefs that drive the business’s workforce. They comprise the philosophy of the business which includes organisational behaviour, personal principles within the organisation, and the beliefs and attitudes shared among the staff and management. Values are the motivational factors for every individual within the organisation.


Vision involves the anticipated image of an organisation in the future in terms of the business’s targets and objectives. This is an essential feature for any successful business as it helps to guide the path of the business and its workforce towards goal achievement.


A workshop is an interactive forum designed to allow different entities to address extensively a given issue that affects the involved parties. The participants involved may include business executives, clients, researchers, and shareholders among other stakeholders, who will share insights and learn from each other under the guidance of an expert facilitator as they try to develop viable solutions to the particular issue of concern. Problem-solving, research, brainstorming, and communication are key elements for a productive workshop.


  • Definition: The process of determining the economic value of a business or asset.
  • Importance: Essential in M&A, investment analysis, and strategic management.
  • Related Terms: Market Value, Fair Value, Intrinsic Value.

EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization):

  • Definition: A measure of a company's overall financial performance.
  • Importance: Often used in valuation to compare profitability between companies without considering tax environments.
  • Related Terms: Operating Income, Net Income.

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF):

  • Definition: A valuation method that projects future cash flows and discounts them back to present value.
  • Importance: Helps in estimating the attractiveness of an investment opportunity.
  • Related Terms: Net Present Value (NPV), Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC).

Multiple Valuation:

  • Definition: The use of financial multiples to compare the relative value of a business to its peers.
  • Importance: Simplifies complex financial metrics to understand market position.
  • Related Terms: Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio, EV/EBITDA.


  • Definition : An intangible asset that represents the excess value paid over the fair market value of tangible assets during an acquisition.
  • Importance : Reflects elements like brand reputation, customer loyalty.
  • Related Terms : Intangible Assets, Brand Equity.

Due Diligence :

  • Definition: A comprehensive appraisal to establish a business’s assets, liabilities, and commercial potential.
  • Importance: Ensures no hidden liabilities when purchasing or selling a business.
  • Related Terms: Risk Assessment, M&A.

Exit Strategy:

  • Definition: A planned approach to selling a business or investment.
  • Importance: Aligns with long-term objectives of business owners or investors.
  • Related Terms: IPO, Acquisition, Liquidation.


  • Definition: The potential financial benefit when two companies merge.
  • Importance: Justification for M&A and expectation of creating additional value.
  • Related Terms: Strategic Fit, Mergers and Acquisitions.

Cap Rate (Capitalization Rate):

  • Definition: The rate of return on a real estate investment property based on the expected income.
  • Importance: Used in real estate to estimate the investor's potential return.
  • Related Terms: Net Operating Income (NOI), Investment Property.

Leveraged Buyout (LBO):

  • Definition: A financial transaction in which a company is purchased with borrowed funds.
  • Importance: Enables acquisitions without committing a significant amount of capital.
  • Related Terms: Debt Financing, Private Equity.

Pre-Money Valuation:

  • Definition: The valuation of a company before it goes public or receives external financing or injection of capital.
  • Importance: Helps investors to determine the equity ownership stake they will receive for a particular investment.
  • Related Terms: Equity, Seed Funding.

Post-Money Valuation :

  • Definition : The valuation of a company after external financing and/or injection of capital, including the most recent round of funding.
  • Importance: Gives a comprehensive picture of the company's worth after considering external investments.
  • Related Terms: Equity Dilution, Venture Capital.

Term Sheet:

  • Definition: A non-binding agreement outlining the basic terms and conditions of an investment.
  • Importance: Serves as a template for the legal teams to draft contracts.
  • Related Terms: Angel Investors, Venture Capital.

Equity Dilution:

  • Definition: The reduction in existing shareholders' ownership percentage due to the issuance of new equity.
  • Importance: Crucial for understanding how new investments impact existing ownership stakes.
  • Related Terms: Stock Options, Seed Funding.

Liquidation Preference:

  • Definition: Specifies the payout order and amounts in the event of a company’s liquidation.
  • Importance: Protects investors by ensuring they receive their money back before other parties.
  • Related Terms: Preferred Stock, Exit Strategy.

Convertible Note :

  • Definition : A form of short-term debt that converts into equity, usually in conjunction with a future financing round.
  • Importance: Provides a flexible financing option, bridging between funding rounds.
  • Related Terms: Angel Investors, Bridge Financing.

urn Rate:

  • Definition: The rate at which a company is losing money, typically measured monthly or annually.
  • Importance: Helps assess how long existing capital will last before needing more funding.
  • Related Terms: Cash Flow, Runway.


  • Definition: The estimated amount of time a company can continue operating with its existing financial resources.
  • Importance: Essential for planning future fundraising and maintaining operations.
  • Related Terms: Burn Rate, Cash Flow.

Cap Table (Capitalization Table):

  • Definition: A spreadsheet or table that shows the equity ownership capitalization for a company.
  • Importance: Displays the ownership stakes and illustrates how they may change with future transactions.
  • Related Terms: Equity, Stock Options.

Vesting Schedule:

  • Definition: A timeline over which an employee's stock options or equity becomes “vested” or owned by the employee.
  • Importance: Aligns employee incentives with long-term company growth.
  • Related Terms: Stock Options, Employee Retention.

Common Stock:

  • Definition: Shares that represent ownership in a company, often with voting rights, but lower priority in liquidation.
  • Importance: Forms the foundation of equity ownership in a company.
  • Related Terms: Equity, Shareholder.

Preferred Stock:

  • Definition: Shares with preferential rights over common stock, such as dividends and priority in liquidation.
  • Importance Attractive to investors seeking specific rights and protections.
  • Related Terms: Dividend, Liquidation Preference.

Convertible Note:

  • Definition: A debt instrument that converts into equity at a specified time, usually during a future funding round.
  • Importance: Offers flexibility for early-stage investing.
  • Related Terms: Bridge Financing, Seed Funding.

SAFE (Simple Agreement for Future Equity):

  • Definition: An agreement that provides rights to future equity, typically without interest or maturity date.
  • Importance: Provides a simple and efficient way to invest in early-stage companies.
  • Related Terms: Convertible Note, Startup Investing.


  • Definition: An option to purchase stock at a specific price within a certain timeframe.
  • Importance: Can be used as an incentive to attract investors.
  • Related Terms: Stock Options, Equity.

Stock Option:

  • Definition: A contract that grants the right to buy or sell stock at a specific price, often used as employee incentives.
  • Importance: Aligns employee interests with company growth.
  • Related Terms: Vesting Schedule, Employee Retention.

Restricted Stock Unit (RSU):

  • Definition: Company shares granted to an employee but subject to vesting requirements.
  • Importance: Used as part of a compensation package to incentivize and retain talent.
  • Related Terms: Stock Option, Vesting Schedule.

Participating Preferred Stock

  • Definition: Preferred stock that allows holders to receive a share of remaining profits after meeting fixed dividend payments.
  • Importance: Offers additional upside potential for preferred shareholders.
  • Related Terms: Preferred Stock, Dividends.

Treasury Stock:

  • Definition: Stock that a company has repurchased from shareholders.
  • Importance: Can be used for various corporate purposes, such as stock buybacks or acquisitions.
  • Related Terms: Share Repurchase, Outstanding Shares.

ADR (American Depositary Receipt:

  • Definition: A negotiable certificate representing ownership of shares in a foreign company, traded on U.S. exchanges.
  • Importance: Facilitates U.S. investors to invest in foreign companies without dealing with cross-border regulations.
  • Related Terms: Foreign Exchange, Global Investing.

Idea Stage:

  • Definition: The initial phase where a business concept or product idea is conceived.
  • Importance: Lays the foundation for the business, guiding its vision and direction.
  • Related Terms: Brainstorming, Innovation, Concept Development.

Startup Stage:

  • Definition: The stage where the business is officially formed, initial products are developed, and the market is explored.
  • Importance: Setting up operations, building a team, and early market validation.
  • Related Terms: Seed Funding, Minimum Viable Product (MVP), Entrepreneurship.

Growth Stage:

  • Definition: A period of rapid expansion, customer acquisition, and scaling of operations.
  • Importance: Crucial for gaining market share, refining the business model, and building brand recognition.
  • Related Terms: Scale-up, Market Penetration, Venture Capital.

Establishment Stage:

  • Definition: The business has a stable presence in the market, with consistent revenues and a regular customer base.
  • Importance: Focus shifts to managing growth sustainably and optimizing processes.
  • Related Terms: Operational Efficiency, Market Stability, Brand Loyalty.

Expansion Stage:

  • Definition: Entering new markets, diversifying products, or acquiring other businesses for further growth.
  • Importance: Strategies for growth beyond core markets and enhancing competitive positioning.
  • Related Terms: Diversification, Market Development, Mergers and Acquisitions.

Maturity Stage:

  • Definition: Business growth slows down, and operations are mostly about maintaining market share and profits.
  • Importance: Emphasis on maintaining brand reputation, customer loyalty, and steady profitability.
  • Related Terms: Sustained Earnings, Market Saturation, Brand Management.

Decline Stage:

  • Definition: A decrease in market share and profits, potentially leading to downsizing or a shift in strategy.
  • Importance: Identifying the causes of decline and making strategic decisions to rejuvenate or exit the business.
  • Related Terms: Downscaling, Strategic Pivot, Crisis Management.

Exit or Renewal Stage:

  • Definition: The final stage where the business owner decides to sell, merge, or reinvent the business.
  • Importance: Planning a proper exit strategy, succession planning, or complete business transformation.
  • Related Terms: Exit Strategy, Liquidation, Business Transformation.

Friends and Family:

  • Definition: Personal connections who invest in a business, often during the idea or startup phase.
  • Importance: Offers initial support but may lack formal investment structure.

Private Investors:

  • Definition: Individual investors or small groups investing personal funds, often informally.
  • Importance: Flexible and less regulated, but due diligence and alignment with business goals are crucial.

Angel Investors:

  • Definition: Affluent individuals who provide capital in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity.
  • Importance: Typically invest in early-stage companies, offering mentorship and resources.

Seed Investors:

  • Definition: Those who invest in a company during its very early stages, providing "seed" capital.
  • Importance: Critical for testing a concept or building an initial product, often with higher risk.

Venture Capitalists (VCs):

  • Definition: Professional investment firms that invest large sums in exchange for equity and often a board seat.
  • Importance: Fuels growth-stage companies, bringing experience, connections, and substantial funds.

Corporate Investors:

  • Definition: Established companies that invest in startups, usually in related industries.
  • Importance: Provides not only funds but also access to networks, technology, and markets.

Crowdfunding Investors:

  • Definition: Investment from a large number of people, typically via online platforms.
  • Importance: Allows businesses to raise small amounts from many backers, enhancing community engagement.

Social Impact Investors:

  • Definition: Investors focused on generating social or environmental impact alongside financial returns.
  • Importance: Aligns investment with values and can attract specific funding for social enterprises.

Private Equity Firms:

  • Definition: Investment firms that invest in or buy out mature companies, often to restructure and sell for profit.
  • Importance: Involved in larger transactions, bringing significant expertise in scaling and optimizing businesses.

Institutional Investors:

  • Definition: Organizations like pension funds, insurance companies, and mutual funds that invest large sums.
  • Importance: Typically invest in established, lower-risk companies or financial markets, providing stability and large capital.

Government and Economic Development Agencies:

  • Definition: Public entities that provide grants, loans, or investments to stimulate economic growth.
  • Importance: Supports innovation, entrepreneurship, and economic development, often with specific criteria and goals.


  • Definition: A group creativity technique to generate ideas.
  • Importance: Facilitates creative thinking and problem-solving.
  • Related Terms: Innovation, Concept Development.

Minimum Viable Product (MVP):

  • Definition: The simplest version of a product that meets user needs.
  • Importance: Allows for market testing with minimal resources.
  • Related Terms: Startup Stage, Product Development.


  • Definition: Ownership interest in a company.
  • Importance: Represents control and financial interest in a business.
  • Related Terms : Common Stock, Shareholder.

Seed Funding:

  • Definition: Early investment to support the business before substantial growth.
  • Importance: Essential for product development and market research.
  • Related Terms: Angel Investors, Startup Stage.


  • Definition: Rapid business expansion.
  • Importance: Key to gaining market share and realizing potential.
  • Related Terms : Growth Stage, Market Penetration.

Operational Efficiency:

  • Definition: Maximizing output relative to input.
  • Importance: Improves profitability and competitiveness.
  • Related Terms : Establishment Stage, Process Optimization.


  • Definition: Broadening products or markets to spread risk.
  • Importance: Enhances stability and growth potential.
  • Related Terms: Expansion Stage, Market Development.

Market Saturation:

  • Definition: A situation where a product has reached widespread use within a market.
  • Importance: Indicates limited growth potential.
  • Related Terms: Maturity Stage, Competitive Strategy.


  • Definition: Reducing the size or scope of operations.
  • Importance: Can be a response to declining sales or profits.
  • Related Terms : Decline Stage, Cost Reduction.

Exit Strategy:

  • Definition: A planned approach to liquidating a business interest.
  • Importance: Ensures a smooth transition or profitable exit.
  • Related Terms: Exit or Renewal Stage, Succession Planning.

Share Repurchase :

  • Definition: Company buying back its own shares from the open market.
  • Importance: Can return value to shareholders and manage stock price.
  • Related Terms: Treasury Stock, Capital Allocation.

Vesting Schedule:

  • Definition: A timeline for when stock options or shares can be accessed.
  • Importance: Aligns employee interests with company growth.
  • Related Terms: Stock Option, Employee Retention.

Global Investing:

  • Definition: Investing across different countries and regions.
  • Importance: Offers diversification and access to growing markets.
  • Related Terms: ADR, Cross-border Transactions.

Crisis Management:

  • Definition: Handling an emergency or unexpected event.
  • Importance: Essential for maintaining reputation and continuity.
  • Related Terms: Decline Stage, Risk Management.

Liquidation Preference:

  • Definition: The priority order for distributing assets if the company is liquidated.
  • Importance: Protects investor interests in the event of company failure.
  • Related Terms: Preferred Stock, Exit Strategy.

Due Diligence:

  • Definition: A comprehensive appraisal of a business to establish its assets and liabilities.
  • Importance: Ensures that all legal, financial, and operational aspects are transparent before a transaction.
  • Related Terms: M&A, Risk Assessment.

EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization) :

  • Definition: A measure of a company's overall financial performance.
  • Importance: Often used in valuations to compare profitability between companies.
  • Related Terms: Operating Income, Financial Analysis.


  • Definition: An intangible asset that represents non-physical factors like brand reputation and customer loyalty.
  • Importance: Can significantly influence the perceived value of a business.
  • Related Terms : Intangible Assets, Brand Equity.

Leveraged Buyout (LBO):

  • Definition: The acquisition of a company using a significant amount of borrowed money.
  • Importance: Can allow for large acquisitions without committing a lot of capital.
  • Related Terms: Acquisition, Debt Financing.

Market Capitalization:

  • Definition: The total value of all a company's shares of stock.
  • Importance: Reflects the public opinion of a company's net worth.
  • Related Terms: Share Price, Equity Valuation.

Net Present Value (NPV):

  • Definition: The difference between the present value of cash inflows and outflows.
  • Importance: A vital concept in capital budgeting to analyze profitability.
  • Related Terms : Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), Investment Analysis.

Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio):

  • Definition: A valuation ratio calculated by dividing the current share price by the earnings per share.
  • Importance: Commonly used to compare relative value among companies in the same industry.
  • Related Terms: Earnings Per Share (EPS), Stock Valuation.

Return on Investment (ROI):

  • Definition: A measure of the profitability of an investment.
  • Importance: Assesses the efficiency of an investment or compares the efficiency of several investments.
  • Related Terms: Profit Margin, Cost-Benefit Analysis.


  • Definition: The potential combined efficiency and effectiveness of two companies that merge.
  • Importance: Often a driving force behind mergers and acquisitions.
  • Related Terms: Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A), Strategic Alliance.

Valuation Multiples:

  • Definition: Ratios used in valuing a company based on the company's earnings or other performance metrics.
  • Importance: Allows for the comparison of company value across industries and sectors.
  • Related Terms: Comparable Company Analysis, EBITDA Multiples.

Working Capital:

  • Definition: The difference between a company’s current assets and current liabilities.
  • Importance: Indicates a company's short-term financial health and operational efficiency.
  • Related Terms: Liquidity, Current Ratio.

Market Value:

  • Definition: The current price at which an asset or service can be bought or sold in the open market.
  • Importance: Reflects current perception and demand; essential for trading and investing.
  • Related Terms: Fair Value, Valuation Multiples.

Fair Value:

  • Definition: An estimate of what a buyer would reasonably pay a willing seller for an asset.
  • Importance: Used in accounting to assess assets' value; often considered unbiased.
  • Related Terms: Market Value, Intrinsic Value.

Intrinsic Value:

  • Definition: The actual value of an asset based on fundamentals and underlying perception.
  • Importance: Often used in investment analysis to determine potential value.
  • Related Terms: Fair Value, Net Present Value (NPV).

Operating Income:

  • Definition: Profit from core business operations, excluding taxes and interest.
  • Importance: Shows profitability from core operations, ignoring financial structure.
  • Related Terms: EBIT, Net Income.

Net Income:

  • Definition: The total profit of a company after all expenses, including taxes and interest.
  • Importance: Represents the bottom line and overall profitability.
  • Related Terms: Operating Income, Gross Income.

Net Present Value (NPV):

  • Definition: The difference between the present value of cash inflows and outflows.
  • Importance: Used in capital budgeting to analyze profitability.
  • Related Terms: Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), Intrinsic Value.

Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC):

  • Definition: The average rate that a company expects to pay to finance its assets.
  • Importance: Key in investment decisions, reflecting the cost of financing.
  • Related Terms: Cost of Equity, Cost of Debt.

Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio:

  • Definition: The ratio of a company's current share price to its earnings per share.
  • Importance: Common valuation measure for comparing companies.
  • Related Terms: Earnings Per Share (EPS), Valuation Multiples.


  • Definition: A ratio comparing a company's enterprise value to its EBITDA.
  • Importance: Often used in valuations to compare companies regardless of financial structure.
  • Related Terms : Enterprise Value (EV), EBITDA.

Intangible Assets:

  • Definition: Non-physical assets like intellectual property, goodwill, and brand equity.
  • Importance: Can significantly contribute to a company's value and competitive edge.
  • Related Terms: Goodwill, Intellectual Property.

Brand Equity:

  • Definition: The value premium a brand adds to a product or service.
  • Importance: A key aspect of marketing and business strategy, affecting customer loyalty.
  • Related Terms : Brand Recognition, Intangible Assets.

Risk Assessment:
  • Definition: The identification and evaluation of potential risks.
  • Importance: Critical for strategic planning, investment, and business continuity.
  • Related Terms: Risk Management, Due Diligence.

IPO (Initial Public Offering):

  • Definition: The process of offering shares of a private company to the public.
  • Importance: Enables capital raising and provides liquidity for existing shareholders.
  • Related Terms: Public Company, Share Price.


  • Definition: The purchase of one company by another.
  • Importance: Can lead to growth, synergy, and competitive advantage.
  • Related Terms: M&A, Leveraged Buyout.


  • Definition: The process of winding up a business and selling off its assets.
  • Importance: Typically the final stage of a business failure or closure.
  • Related Terms: Bankruptcy, Liquidation Preference.

Net Operating Income (NOI):

  • Definition: Income generated from a company's core business operations.
  • Importance: Reflects the profitability of operational activities.
  • Related Terms: EBITDA, Operating Income.

Debt Financing:

  • Definition: Raising funds by borrowing, usually through loans or bonds.
  • Importance: Provides capital without diluting ownership but adds interest obligations.
  • Related Terms: Equity Financing, Leverage.

Equity Financing:

  • Definition: Raising funds by selling ownership shares in the company.
  • Importance: No debt obligations, but dilutes ownership control.
  • Related Terms: Debt Financing, Venture Capital.

Secure your legacy today

Schedule a 15-minute phone consultation

Get in Touch

Murtaza Manji - Managing Partner of Kaizen Business Consulting Group Dubai
Kaizen’s team of experts have worked with 1050+ companies across 16 different industries worldwide to achieve higher profits, greater productivity, and sustainable growth by creating efficient systems and structure. Get in touch today to see how we can support you.